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Colorectal Surgery

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Colorectal Surgery

Colorectal surgery is a field in medicine dealing with disorders of the rectum, anus, and colon. The field is also known as proctology, but this term is now used infrequently within medicine and is most often employed to identify practices relating to the anus and rectum in particular.

Colorectal surgical disorders include:

• varicosities or swelling, and inflammation of veins in the rectum and anus (hemorrhoids)
• unnatural cracks or tears in the anus (anal fissures)
• abnormal connections or passageways between the rectum or other anorectal area to the skin surface (fistulas)
• severe constipation conditions
• fecal incontinence
• protrusion of the walls of the rectum through the anus (rectal prolapse)
• birth defects such as the imperforate anus
• treatment of severe colic disorders, such as Crohn’s disease
• cancer of the colon and rectum (colorectal cancer)
• repositioning of the rectal area if fallen out
• anal cancer
• any injuries to the anus
• removal of objects inserted into anus

Surgical forms of treatment for these conditions include:

Hemorrhoidectomy, fissurectomy, lateral internal sphincterotomy, fistulectomy, Stapled TransAnal Rectal Resection (STARR), Anoplasty, Sphinctor repair, Rectopexy, colectomy, ileo/colostomy, polypectomy, strictureplasty, anoplasty, and more depending on the condition the patient has. Diagnostic procedures, such as a colonoscopy, are very important in colorectal surgery, as they can tell the physician what type of diagnosis should be given and what procedure should be done to correct the condition. Other diagnostic procedures used by colorectal surgeons include: proctoscopy, defecating proctography, sigmoidoscopy. In recent times, the laparoscopic method of surgery has seen a surge of popularity, due to its lower risks, decreased recovery time, and smaller, more precise incisions achieved by using laparoscopic instruments.